Where base units come from and how they are related to each other? The second, the metre and other base units are useful approximations for describing our universe. What we measure are mere ratios between measured values and base units. The fundamental question is how to measure the dimensions of spacetime with utmost precision if every part of the universe is constantly changing, and not only due to the thermal motion of atoms or molecules, but also quantum vacuum fluctuations.

What is the age of our expanding universe? Measured by the universe itself? Measured by the rulers (oscillations) that result from the properties of the universe? The basis of science is a unit of measurement – one distance (number of oscillations). Probably such unit is changing over time. How to estimate the past or the future, especiall what was before the creation (selection) of the unit?
It’s impossible to measure time near a singularity, close to zero. We don’t know the nature of the events near our calculated absolute zero. It is impossible to reach 0 K in the same way as to reach 0 sec. Especially with derived units from something, not from nothing.  The measuring frequency-ruler has a period. Near the singularity, this period would be higher and so the frequency increases. In other words, there is a change of ruler.

We are trapped with base units or base rulers. They’re just relative not absolute. We are able to measure e.g. a prolongation of thermal expansion of a steel. Such measurement is provided by external ruler independent to prolongated steel. How to measure the prolongation of the steel by inner ruler?
See the expansion of our universe. There are three possible processes:

– units or rulers do not change
– units or rulers change in accordance with the expansion of our universe
– units or rulers slightly change (slipping) in relation to the expansion of our universe

We suppose rulers do not change in relation to galaxies moving away to each other.

Let’s go back to the question that occasionally occupies our minds. What’s going on in Pleiades (e.g. near Electra or Maia) now – right now of our earthly time.  This query is meaningless. Anyway, there’s no point what’s happening in one place of the Pleiades now, right now, think in our earthly time. Every part of our universe has its own time – there is no coincidence. Same meaningless query as what is the absolute value of frequency 1 oscillation. What an absolute size? We cannot know or measure the absolute size of one oscillation. We have no external rulers. We are able to measure only and only the ratio of one oscillation to another or more oscillations. We can select one oscillation as base unit for others and thus compare (measure) not only the oscillations, but also all irregular happenings in the world.

See a list of pdf files below. There are topics (considerations and suggestions) on the subject of this section there. 

Measurement Shapes
MatterIrreversibilityMeasurement frequency
Base_units_previewBase unit of base unitsDensity
Base_units_2 Base_units_3Base_units_summaryUnits_time_space_matterMovement

 

See below – remarks waiting for word processing

An overview of the basic unit definitions shows the following:
the basic unit of the base units is time – the definition of time, then we get the base unit of length and mass.
Roughly written — we can reduce all units to frequency — the frequency determines the time, length, and mass. The higher the frequency, the higher the mass. The same is valid for temperature – or thermal movement of atoms or molecules. But it’s not so clear here. Heat energy versus temperature. Thermal energy is given by mass, thermal capacity and temperature. The biggest problem is the thermal capacity, which is difficult to define, and if so in a small range of temperatures. The reason is the internal bonds in molecules. After that the properties of atoms – chemical elements and in the end the excitations of quantum field.

Very important short remark about temperature. Briefly – the zero point degree celsius (0°C) temperature was chosen by A. Celsius as the temperature at which ice melts or water freezes at a defined atmospheric pressure. 100°C means the temperature of boiling water at a defined atmospheric pressure. These two points are determined by the temperature scale. As well as two points in mathematics, a straight line is determined. O.K. Go on. Scientists (Boyle, Mariott, Gay-Lussac, Pascal, etc.) investigated the behaviour of gases. Change in their volume depending on temperature and pressure. At constant atmospheric pressure, they found a reduction in the volume of studied gases. Air, nitrogen, hydrogen, etc. The reduction in temperature leads to a reduction in the volume of gas. Expressed mathematically — we get a linear dependency — a line with a given direction. How many different gases so many different directions. That was the premise – see the figure below.


But what was a tremendous surprise was that these divergent directions after their extrapolation meet at a single point, or in a given area, according to the accuracy of the measurement. See next image.


Furthermore, it has been developed on the basis of passed measurements of the theory of ideal gas. This theory works with a gas that behaves ideally – without interfering with internal particles. Light gases such as hydrogen and helium are closest to the ideal gas. But these gases condense at a sufficiently low temperature. Whereas the ideal gas does not condense until temperature, when its volume is reduced to zero. This is equivalent to a temperature of -273.15°C. Temperature absolute zero.
It should be added that this temperature was determined only and only by extrapolating to the ideal gas on the basis of measurements made for real gases.
We also know from the third law of thermodynamics that this temperature is unreachable just like the speed of light in according to the special theory of relativity. But in thermodynamics, we already know negative absolute temperatures – spin systems. This is not a fabrication, nor is it nonsens – it is a reality. On the basis of which quantum generators work – masers and lasers.
Let’s go back to the ideal gas theory. Let’s think of this gas as particles, or zero-size points that vary in their positions. In other words, these points are indistinguishable from each other (as are electrons in physics), but they have different among them. We know from Cantor’s theory that one point of zero size can contain infinite points of equal, zero size.

Let’s think of the ideal gas as zero-size points. These points are distributed in a certain volume. When we heat the gas, the volume, that is, the distance among ideal points increases. When we cool the gas, the volume, that is, the distance among ideal points decreases. This ideal gas can be cooled to an absolute zero temperature. In other words, all points will be compressed to one point. As Cantor’s theorem allows us. But we’re in the real world. Individual points (atoms, molecules) are given by three different particles – protons, neutrons, electrons. However, we can reduce these particles to excitations of a quantum field full of vacuum fluctuations. In other words, we can build a model where the ideal points are represented by excitations of the quantum field (“foam”). Call these excitations real points. Real points do not have zero size, however, but they have a certain size in the probability range – see the Gaussian curve of normal distribution with a maximum in the middle.

 The entire beauty of the world and the Universe throughout the history is given only and only by the diverse spatial distribution of real points. We get to know this better on the basic atoms of organic elements, where carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms make up more than 90% of the basis of all organic compounds – life from protoorganisms, to viruses and bacteria, to complex organisms such as plants and animals including humans. The only difference between a virus and a human is the number and distribution of the basic real “points.”

But let’s return to thermodynamics. It is not possible to press our real points to zero, or close to zero. Then the energy of one point could be greater than the energy of the entire universe – see Planck’s equation for the quantum of energy E = hf (h- Planck. konst., f -frequency). It is not possible to think of a zero real point size. This brings us to the singularity – zero volume along with infinite energy. Singularity is a very unpleasant state that arises from our ignorance of reality at given level. For we cannot use extrapolation regardless of the basic principles of the existence of real points. Their existence is given by excitations of quantum field in given space. Without space there is no excitations.

ofofA real point (electron, quark) means a vacuum excitation through the entire space of the universe with a given maximum (it makes no sense to wonder whether in the middle). Maximum vacuum excitation is a real point. The real point annihilated after a while, and then a new one is created (arises) almost in the same place. The physical process of annihilation and creation. In fact, the real point keeps its position. The rule is, always a new point with a new position nearly at the old point. All the real points are still being restored.
These points form atomic nuclei through the bonding (strong nuclear interaction). The atomic nucleus is a set of varying numbers of real points – from hydrogen to uranium. I do not mention the weak nuclear interaction responsible for the decay of atomic nuclei. The atomic nucleus is a set of real points. From one set with three points – the atomic nucleus of hydrogen, two sets forming the atomic nucleus of deuterium, then four sets forming the atomic nucleus of helium to the atomic nucleus of uranium with 238 sets. Each set has the same number of points – three real points (quarks) with the exchange force of gluons. Thanks to strong nuclei interaction these sets are able to be together. Thanks to electromagnetic interaction, atoms exist – sets of points with “orbiting” points around it. We call such “orbiting” points electrons.

Atoms are the most stable structures in the universe. They’re hard to change. Atoms connect with each other due to valence electrons with given properties. Next, through the elecromagnetic interaction, we have molecules. Let´s call them structures. They are given by sets of grouped real points called atoms. Molecules are no longer as stable as atoms, they split or fuse more easily.

Summary – the real points that are still restored have given properties. Properties of four basic physical forces (interactions). These properties still hold regardless of the annihilation and creation of real points called particles.

 The whole world can be reduced to the level of real points with a certain size in the probability range – see the Gaussian curve of normal distribution with a maximum in the middle. These points always have given properties at least in pairs. A real point in itself is meaningless. Given properties – four basic physical forces. Strong and weak nuclear forces, electromagnetic and gravity forces.

The real points interact with each other by four physical forces. But there are limits. Strong and weak nuclear forces keep themselves for a short distance (to the size of real points). But electromagnetic and gravity forces keep themselves for unlimited distances.

Everything – all matter in the universe (chemical elements, molecules, organisms up to the human brain) consists of these real points grouped together into structures of different levels of complexity. The only difference among atoms, molecules, protozoas, organisms or humans is in the amount of real points and structures. Shapes and structures are grouped together into different arrangements (level of complexity) with each other in accordance with given properties (bonding laws). 
These bonding laws exclude all possible combinations of real points grouped together. Determine the properties of individual structures that consist of simple shapes – real points. These structural properties determine the possible arrangement of atoms in chemical molecules. Not all options can be realized, regardless of given structure properties. They can only be combined into different compounds according to their chemical properties. It is not possible to create all possible combinations. See hydrocarbons – H(hydorgen), C(carbon), O(oxygen), N(nitrogen). How many combinations are possible from the previously mentioned elements HCON (not counting phospohorus, magnesium, calcium, sulphur, etc). Is there a difference between HC or CH? Is it possible to have HC4 instead CH4-methane? See the tree-like structure of hydrocarbons. See methane, ethane, propane, butane. Unexpected tree-like arrangements with increasing complexity. 
It is curious how certain very complex structures of grouped real points and structures can perceive and distinguish other structures of grouped real points. Where is the origin of perception and distinguishing? Surely these are not real points in themselves grouped into very complex structures. The origin of perception is to be found in the bindings among real points (given properties). Not only the four basic physical interactions, but also the bonds of  higher levels – chemical, biological, psychological, etc. 

A model of the universe with a suitable distribution of real points can be a muster for a linguistic model. I mean for english language with 26 letters.
There’s one line at the beginning. From this line, we define a segment with a given distance. And we have a basis for shaping 26 letters of the alphabet from A to Z. These letters have the same basis – a segment. The letters of the alphabet differ only and only by changing their shapes. Notice: But if we use e.g letter A 100times or more then every appearance of letter A is slightly different to each other.
We know very well that there can be tremendous amount of possible shapes from one segment then existing 26 shapes (A to Z). The basic requirement is good distinguishability. So we have 26 letters of the alphabet. From these letters we can create a lot of words composed of one or two letters up to 10 or 15 letters. The vocabulary of each language contains a few thousand words for routine frequent use, and a few tens of thousands of words not so often used. Words composed of one or two letters up to 10 or 15 letters could be a tremendous amount. Like with real points there are more and more combinations with appearance of them then basic nearly 120 chemical elements of the periodic table.
Notice: the written word apple, if we use the word apple 1000 times or more, then every word has its own slightly differences to each other like letters. Compare with biological species – see apples. See lots of apple varieties varying in colour, shape and yet they meet the basic definition of a biological apple species. And most importantly, two apples through the history of the world are alike.

Notice: Indeed, all letters of all languages worldwide can be replaced by a suitably shaped section or a few suitably shaped sections (Arabic or Chinese, Indian or Japanese).

In the end every different part of our universe could have the own different word. The word apple represents certain morphological characters that are common to a certain biological species. Likewise, the word snowflake clearly defines the hexagonal arrangement of ice crystals. Although we know every snowflake in the world is an unrepeatable original. Exactly in the same way like two light wavelengths in the line spectrums differs to each other and yet they meet the basic definition of Planck constant.

It is impossible to describe everything. Every shape, every structure and every process differs to each other. How many are different shapes so many are describing shapes. Where to find describing shapes? For better understanding we must make sets with likewise characteristic.

An infinite number of shapes need to be formed, reduced, grouped into a limited number of shapes that will be similar. Create sets of shapes with given properties – common characteristics while respecting the originality of each shape. See maple leaves, clearly at first glance we identify maple leaf. But if we take a closer look at all the maple leaves we have identified, if we look at them in great detail, we find that all the leaves differ from one another. These sets — called biological species change over time. Not only phylogenetically (development of the organism as an individual from germ to adulthood), but also ontogenetically (evolution of organisms through geological epoch) – see clearly visible differences between present-day plant life and perhaps Devon plant life.

Already here we are offered a simple definition of biological species and indeed all natural objects and processes in the world. Easy to distinguish. The maple leaf differs rapidly from the oak leaf or from the lime leaf, or from other leaves. Similarly, a liquid is clearly different from a solid or from a gas. Whereas determining the type of gas or liquid is already harder. But even here, there are methods to clearly divide oil from water or air from steam. And so we can go deeper. This is where the intensity of observational or dividing methods increases. Distinguish types of oils or degree of moisture in water steam. And one can go even deeper. Eventually we come to the conclusion that there are not two exactly the same oils in the world, or two completely identical types of petrol or exactly the same snowflakes.

And on the other hand, we can generalize. Matter comes in four basic forms – solid, liquid, gas, plasma. The only difference between a solid and a liquid or gas is in the stiffness or degree of freedom of chemical bonds. Solid, liquid and gas are common occurrences of atoms. Stable atoms, non-ionized atoms. And that makes this trio (solid, liquid, gas) radically different from plasma. In plasma, atoms are not stable, but atoms are more or less ionized. With free electrons, that is. In the event of very high temperatures, atomic nuclei may fuse or divide.

The basic physical classification of the world

The base of current physics  – a quantum field, after that a radiation or matter, the radiation has no restmass as opposed to matter

Next, we can divide radiation by wavelengths of radio, microwave, infrared, light, ultraviolet, röntgen, gamma radiation. How to further divide ultraviolet or gamma rays? Hard or soft? We can divide the light radiation into pretty rainbow colors ranging from violet to blue to green to yellow to red. And artists can go even further – to distinguish degrees of saturation. But this resolution is no longer done by the machine, by the measuring apparatus, it’s only done by the man because of his perception.

Let’s get back to matter. Matter is divided into ionized and non-ionized. Ionized matter is plasma. Non-ionized matter is divided into solid, liquid, gas. Furthermore, the solids are divided into crystalline, amorphous. Liquids are divided according to viscosity – oil, water. Gases are divided according to their density. And in this way, we can continue to divide up to a point. And that limit is the originality of each observant shape or process.

The basis of all sciences, the basis of all crafts, the basis of all art, the basis of all human activity is a clear resolution. Without resolution and sorting facts, science cannot exist. Differentiation is needed in the craft, as well as in the arts.
We are still left with the question where in the chaotic ocean of quantum fields the regular or quasi-regular structures come from. Why they hold together for some time, why they evolve in spite of the surrounding and internal chaos.

Imagine an ocean, an ocean full of different random shapes (a quantum field model with random vacuum fluctuations). In this ocean we suddenly see, we are able to distinguish regular waves, regular shapes and structures and processes among them, which at the micro state are changing in accordance with the ocean, but in the macro state they are stable or quasi-stable (constantly renewed through annihilation and creation). At first we cannot distinguish what it is, but after a while we can recognize the evolution of a shape from its origin, birth through its development to its end. See Ontogenetic evolution. In the same way, shapes change phylogenetically – by speciation. This is literally a real miracle.