Base units, their origin and meaning

Where base units come from and how they are related to each other? The second, the metre and other base units are useful approximations for describing our universe. What we measure are mere ratios between measured values and base units. The fundamental question is how...

The nature and limits of mathematics

What is mathematics? Counting. Counting what? Counting what is distinguishable to our perception. Distinguishability over time – distinguishable objects, processes or feelings must have a certain duration. See e.g. biological species (difference between Devonian...

Probability, randomness and necessity

Note at the beginning –  appearances of all differentiable shapes, structures, events or processes have probabilistic distribution.  We have an example: 16 balls passing through Galton board – the direction to the right is marked I, to the left 0 See an...

The meaning of abstraction in Reality

At the beginning of the Universe, there were no elements as we know them today. It had taken some time for the first atoms of elements such as hydrogen and helium to form, and even longer for the other elements of the periodic table to be created inside stars. After...