At the beginning of the Universe, there were no elements as we know them today. It had taken some time for the first atoms of elements such as hydrogen and helium to form, and even longer for the other elements of the periodic table to be created inside stars. After that the elements join together according to bonding laws to form molecules in chemical processes on which all further developmentis based. The occurrence of various compounds provides clues about natural and human history. There was certainly no artificial bronze in the Tertiary, but there has been since the Bronze Age. For much of human history, there was no steel, but now it is ubiquitous, as are transistors and integrated circuits, which have existed only for the last few decades. One day they are likely to be unearthed during archaelogical excavations by our descendents or perhaps other life forms altogether. The same applies to musical compositions and works of visual art, the oldest of which are only thousands or tens of thousands of years old. We can only learn about the world through our own experience, which is sometimes painful but often brings fantastic results. The basic state of the Universe, of which our world is a small part, is quantum foam – pure randomness in every detail that is completely unpredictable in any way. So how is it possible that it contains stable structures such as particles, molecules and organisms, including human beings? Inevitably, such structures get eroded away by the surrounding chaos. Consider the fate of an abandoned ship in a storm in the middle of the ocean. It is only a matter of time before it sinks or runs ashore and becomes a wreck. Similarly, a vacant house without heating and repairs will become derelict after a few years and will gradually be destroyed by rain, wind, frost and heat. And the same principle applies even to the human body. Consider the regeneration of the liver cells and other healing and maintenance bilogical processes without which we couldn’t live for very long at all. To conclude, the existence of organized structures like particles or organisms, is only temporary. For them to exist for long periods, some external force must maintain their organization by counteracting entropy.
Life won’t win, life has already won, and it still wins.
What is time, what is life? It is not possible to separate the origin of life on Earth from that of the Universe. It is not possible to distinguish the evolution of life on Earth from the evolution of matter in the Universe to the conditions for the “formation” of life. In fact, life manifests itself in the beauty of minerals or in structures of glass. However, we can see in the sky similarities of certain cloud structures to graptolite slates, or cracked glass with beetle grooves and much more.
The science is about limits, about bonding shapes, about different shapes and structures with common characteristics – briefly about discretion. Without differentiable shapes there is no science.
Scientists argued about differences among species. Where to put their boundaries. It could be better to think what discreteness in species does mean. What is the meaning of the fact that Continuously Nature is bounded to discreet appearances like species in biology.
The basis of theory of sets are elements. These elements must be differentiable. Very well differentiable. If there is no differentiability then there is no set, no math, no science either.
I remember a bit like one quote – Science is like a very tall flagpole. At the top of the flagpole there is a flag with an inscription. And so, armed with determination, we climb that pole with all sorts of technical means to read what is written there on the flag. After a lot of efforts, failures and then successes, we are able to read the inscription on it. There is written – The end of the flagpole.
The law of conservation of energy is valid only for isolated space like second law of thermodynamics. The sum of total energy before the experiment in a isolated space is equal with the sum of total energy after the experiment. Where there is the isolated system in the Universe? I mean the completely isolated system without any interactions with its surroundings. Such ideal isolated system really does not exist in the world like the ideal gas or like the ideal point or line or cube or anything else. Not to mention, the differences among isolated, closed and open systems. Where boundary conditions may change – e.g. changing an isolated system to a closed system. Where there will only be an exchange of energy without an exchange of matter.
It is impossible to make ideal closed space in Nature. Especially when we don’t know the origin of quantum foam and where did matter came from. E.g. the ideal coordinate system – we pretend rectangular coordinate system like a squared paper. All squares are the same. But the space without matter has no sense. And matter is responsible for curved space including the coordinate system, either. The empty space without visible matter is full of fluctuated elements (particles and antiparticles). The grainy structure – like untuned TV screen .
It is very interesting how several germ cells can develop into such a complicated structure as an organism, whether plant, animal or human. Yes, DNA structure is clear but it also depends on the influence of the environment. So does the universe. From the first few forms, the universe has developed into a very higly complex structures including organisms. And what about the environment of our Universe?
Self-organization theory – the reciprocal movements of a complex system controlled by the laws of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to this theory, the system can “spontaneously” organize itself if energy flows through it. In other words, if we have energy differences and a chaotic system among them, and we start the energy flow given by energy differences, then the initially chaotic system will start to organize itself into higher orderly predictive complex structures. This is verified many times not only in thermodynamics, physics, but also in chemistry or biology.
The proven theory in practice many times. But it adds more questions to the origins of life and the origins of the universe than it explains them. On the one hand, the requirement of an energy differences. Secondly, an impulse triggering the flow of energy. Furthermore, the regulation of the flow of energy and, above all, the origin of energy, or what we call energy. We don’t get away with explaining that energy is the ability to do work. Very reduced – energy is given by the frequency of oscillations of electromagnetic waves E = f, when we give Planck’s constant equal to one. The higher the frequency the higher the energy.
Thus, the energy flow occurs between two or more different frequencies. Roughly, we can imagine two compressed springs that differ in rigidity.
It is not enough to have only two or different frequencies, but we have to have very many dissipated particles between them, entities that somehow have to interact with the flow of energy. And here comes the question of the size, number, and proportion of the entities to the size of the original energy difference, that is, the frequencies already. Furthermore, it is a carrier of frequencies. We no longer have ether, but a quantum field full of vacuum fluctuations. So we have pure chaos. Then there is the question about two different frequencies – their origin in an environment like a chaotic quantum field.
Then there is the existence of laws that define the behavior of different frequencies. Why more frequency depresses less one and not the other way around. But it also depends on rigidity. An example from mechanics – however compressed a spring with low rigidity does not overwhelm a very low compressed spring with high rigidity. No matter how compressed the clockspring does not overcome the uncompressed spring of the car’s suspension. So much for distributing the properties of a quantum field. It’s impossible to describe a chaotic quantum field.
In the end, different frequencies can be modeled on clay, and nothing happens. The clay must be living. Only when we start moving the clay will something happen, but if I don’t want a chaotic behaviour I have to issue regulations, set limits. And where the limits and regulations for so-called self-organization come from? Regardless, in an environment like the chaos of quantum fluctuations, nothing can stay stable. Compare this with the dissipative environment of corrosive acid against a piece of cloth. In other words, in an environment like the chaos of quantum vacuum fluctuations, we still have to recover again and again through the creation and annihilation of particles, after that to hold the validity of laws and regules among particles and antiparticles with waves with given laws – let’s call them electromagnetic waves. And then consider classical particles, as so-called frozen energy or better as excitations of the quantum field.
The laws of nature as we know them were not around just after the creation of the universe. Or at the moment of creation. The question is what that moment is and how long it lasts. See the theory of no beginning of the universe, but of the random expansion of one fluctuation of the quantum field into its present cosmic form. So the laws of nature, not only physical, chemical (especially organic chemistry) but biological, sociological were sort of condensed in an initial state of the universe of which we don’t know how long it lasted. We don’t have a scale. The atomic cesium clock as we know it today did not exist. But their idea has been condensed into primordial forms, as have their creators and users. There’s no telling what’s hidden in the quantum field. So let’s keep exploring, so we have something to look forward to.
Actually, the whole world as it is, including all biological species and the beauties of nature through the history, including all works of art, music, all of that was condensed in the primordial beginning? The origin of the jet loom, any inventions, musical or artistic works, ideas, technological processes, etc. This was all condensed in the early days of the universe? Or else? I had forgotten the idea that our universe was about the mass of a bag full of potatoes at the beginning, and the rest was built up during the expansion. The law of conservation of energy is right – the negative energy of gravity versus the present enormous mass (energy) of the universe. So it balances out like a scale. My remark is not mocking, diminishing the degree of knowledge reached. Because one has to formulate an idea, law or equation based on the available facts and then see how it agrees with further observations. We formulate new facts at the risk of making incorrect conclusions. But that’s progress, we know which way is wrong and we try differently.
The reality or our ideas with models? Which do we prefer? The reality of the universe gradually revealed by us, which guides us. Revealed at the cost of a painful search followed by immense joy from understanding and applying new knowledge.
Very interesting question – thickness of the biosphere on Earth.
to continued next time
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